New Perspective in the Formulation and Characterization of Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide (DMAB) Stabilized Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles

>Over the last few decades the establishment of nanoparticles as suitable drug carriers with the transport of drugs across biological barriers such as the gastrointestinal barrier moved into the focus of many research groups. Besides drug transport such carrier systems are well suited for the protection of drugs against enzymatic and chemical degradation. The preparation of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is intensively described in literature, while especially nanoparticles with cationic properties show a promising increased cellular uptake. This is due to the electrostatic interaction between the cationic surface and the negatively charged lipid membrane of the cells. Even though several studies achieved the successful preparation of nanoparticles stabilized with the cationic surfactants such as didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB), in most cases insufficient attention was paid to a precise analytical characterization of the nanoparticle system. The aim of the present work was to overcome this deficit by presenting a new perspective in the formulation and characterization of DMAB-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles. Therefore these nanoparticles were carefully examined with regard to particle diameter, zeta potential, the effect of variation in stabilizer concentration, residual DMAB content, and electrolyte stability. Without any steric stabilization, the DMAB-modified nanoparticles were sensitive to typical electrolyte concentrations of biological environments due to compression of the electrical double layer in conjunction with a decrease in zeta potential. To handle this problem, the present study proposed two modifications to enable electrolyte stability. Both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified DMAB-PLGA-nanoparticles were stable during electrolyte addition. Furthermore, in contrast to unmodified DMAB-PLGA-nanoparticles and free DMAB, such modifications led to a lower cytotoxic activity against Caco-2 cells. In conclusion this study offers a closer and critical point of view on preparation, in vitro and analytical evaluation of DMAB-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles for the physiological use.

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