PEG Amines

PEG Amines

Poly(ethylene glycol) chains with primary amino groups at the termini are very useful functionalized polymers.The amino end group on mPEG-NH2 is more reactive toward acylating agents than the hydroxyl group that is present on conventional PEG, and they also readily undergo reductive amination reactions. This reactivity offers a variety of methods for attachment of other … [Read more…]

Heterobifunctional PEGs

Heterobifunctional PEGs

Heterobifunctional derivatives of PEG have the general structure X-PEG-Y and are extremely useful as macromolecular cross-linking agents or as spacers between two different entities. In addition to the two independent functional groups, the presence of PEG provides water solubility, biocompatibility, flexibility, and a great degree of freedom for each of the linked components of X … [Read more…]

What are linear, branched, forked, and multiarm PEGs?


Linear PEGs are straight-chained PEGs that are either monofunctional, homobifunctional, or heterobifunctional. • Linear monofunctional PEGs (mPEG-X) have one reactive moiety at one end of the PEG with the other end considered non-reactive (typically end-capped with a methoxy group) • Linear homobifunctional PEGs (X-PEG-X) contain the same reactive moiety at each end of the PEG. … [Read more…]

Thiol PEGylation


Thiol PEGylation is specific for free thiols on biological reagents. Utopbio offers some PEGylation reagents for covalent modification such as  mPEG-MAL (forms a physiological stable linkage) and mPEG-OPSS and mPEG-SH (each forms a disulfide bond to the conjugate). Cysteine is less abundant in proteins and peptides; thus, reducing both the chance for protein deactivation and … [Read more…]

N-terminal PEGylation


PEGs bearing aldehyde groups undergo reductive amination reactions with primary amines in the presence of a reducing reagent such as sodium cyanoborohydride. Unlike other electrophilically activated groups, PEGs bearing aldehyde groups react only with amines. This reaction takes place under mild conditions (pH 5–10, 6–36 hours) and has been shown to be useful for attaching … [Read more…]

Novel Y-shape Poly(ethylene glycol)

y peg

Novel Y-shape poly(ethylene glycol) with the functional group at only one terminal (out of three branch chains) is developed on the basis of V-shape PEGs to enhance below performance attributes: Ease of pegylation vs traditional branched structure:Relatively, 2-arm (or V-shape) traditional branched PEG has greater steric hindrance in pegylation, when compared to Y-shape PEG molecule … [Read more…]

Reagent for PEGylation


PEG reagents are useful for coupling to functional groups of biologically active agents such as proteins, antibody fragments, aptamers, peptides, and small molecules. The chemical attachment of PEG to these biologically active agents is referred to as “PEGylation”. PEGylation reaction conditions vary depending on the biological active, 0the desired site and degree of PEGylation, and … [Read more…]

PEG Functionality —-Guideline for Protein / Peptide Conjugation


The pegylation of bioengineered protein/peptide drugs (hereinafter referred to as PEG-protein drugs) has received intensive attentions. Future broader applications in interferon, insulin, erythropoietin (EPO), interleukin, and growth hormone, are critical to the treatment on severe diseases including malignant tumors, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, etc..  PEGylation technology is now widely used for the modification of proteins, … [Read more…]

Why PEGylation


Pegylation refers to a process of covalent attachment of PEG polymer chains to target molecules, normally small molecule chemical drugs or large bio-molecules like peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, oligonucleotides, antibody fragments, affinity ligands, cofactors, liposomes, and other bio-related substances. Pegylation can impart several significant pharmacological advantages over the unmodified counterparts in the following attributes, improving … [Read more…]

What is PEG


Poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG), also known as poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO), is an amphiphilic polyether that is soluble both in water and most organic solvents. PEG and its derivatives are among the few polymers approved for medical uses by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Functionalized PEG, also named active PEG, activated PEG or functional PEG, is a … [Read more…]